How did Apple arrive at the A6 chip in the iPhone 5? A long-time chip analyst has documented the long and winding road.
Apple's Phil Schiller introduced the A6 processor at last week's event.
(Credit: James Martin/CNET)
While endorsing a report that the A6 is a unique Apple design, Linley Gwennap, who heads The Linley Group, a chip consultancy, posted a brief history of the A6's chip, which was an estimated US$500-million-plus development effort, in a research note.
Some of the history has been documented before, but other parts are not as well known.
Gwennap's firm is the publisher of the Microprocessor Report, and it frequently holds conferences on mobile chips.
Below are some of the highlights of Gwennap's post.
Apple's interest doing its own central processing unit (CPU) design dates back to its US$278 million acquisition of PA Semi in April 2008. Some of the team members had previously worked on low-power StrongArm processors under PA Semi CEO Dan Dobberpuhl at Digital Equipment (DEC) in the 1990s. The "CPU design team had developed a high-performance PowerPC processor under the leadership of Jim Keller and Pete Bannon".
ARM architecture licence
Within a month of the PA Semi deal, "Apple secretly signed an architecture licence with ARM that allowed the company to develop its own ARM-compatible CPUs, becoming one of the few companies in the world with that right".
"Insanely great" runs into the laws of physics
One group of PA Semi employees worked on the Apple A4 chip using an ARM CPU core, while another group began "defining the micro-architecture for the new CPU". Steve Jobs' input, needless to say, set the pace. Jobs "initially set an 'insanely great' bar for the performance of the new CPU, but he eventually realised that his CPU team was limited by the same laws of physics that apply to everyone else", Gwennap wrote, citing a "source".
In March 2010, PA Semi's Dobberpuhl left Apple, as did others in that time frame, such as COO Leo Joseph and VP of System Architecture, Mark Hayter, "causing reports that the CPU design team was dissolving. But at PA Semi, Dobberpuhl and Joseph were involved mainly on the business side, and Hayter worked at the SoC [system on a chip] level and not on the CPU, so these departures were not as significant as they appeared".
Keller, Bannon, Williams
"Keller and Bannon continued to lead Apple's chip development ...In February 2010, the company hired Gerard Williams, an ARM fellow who was the technical lead for the Cortex-A8 and Cortex-A15 CPUs; Williams became Apple's chief CPU architect." Keller left Apple and went to AMD.
By early 2010, the team was done with the A6 micro-architecture design, and started the physical-design phase. "To bolster its physical-design capabilities", Apple bought chip design house Intrinsity for about US$120 million in April 2010. "This deal brought in an experienced team of chip designers that specialised in high-speed physical design, having just finished boosting the speed of Samsung's Hummingbird CPU (which Apple used in its A4 processor). The A6 taped out about a year later, and Apple received the first samples last summer. To support the iPhone 5 launch, the new processor must have been cleared for production around June," Gwennap wrote.
North of US$500 million spent
Apple spent about US$400 million to buy PA Semi and Intrinsity, tens of millions for an ARM CPU licence and probably more than US$100 million to support its CPU design efforts over a span of four years. "It appears that the end result will be that Apple ships a Cortex-A15-class CPU about three months before arch-enemy Samsung does."
So, what's Apple up to next? Gwennap believes that Apple will have to do a new CPU design every two years, not unlike Intel's cadence.
Apple's next CPU "will likely implement the 64-bit ARM v8 instruction set", he wrote.
Expect this in 2014, Gwennap said. "So for its 2013 products, Apple will have to rely on the same CPU design, perhaps in a quad-core configuration and with a higher-performance GPU."